Toei and early TV anime – Part 1: Kaze no Fujimaru (1964-1965)

When one thinks “60’s Tôei”, or even “golden age Tôei”, the images that come up are of feature-length movies, the provocative “Disney of the East” catchphrase and impressive displays of so-called “full” animation on wide Cinemascope screens. Black-and-white “limited” TV animation, believed to be far less ambitious and technically proficient, is generally brushed off. That’s especially the case with Tôei Animation, since their parallel movie production is so diverse and interesting.

But the fact that Tôei did produce TV anime, like every other studio at the time, should not be dismissed. While producers and Tôei’s director Hiroshi Okawa may have pictured the movie/TV divide as one between high and low quality (a divide still deeply entrenched in many perspectives on anime history and aesthetics), things are different when one doesn’t take the management perspective, but rather the one of the artists. For the animators, directors and writers of Tôei, TV and movies weren’t so much opposites as complementaries: what you couldn’t do in one format, you could try it out in the other, as you either had more resources and time on movies, or more freedom and room for experimentation on TV.

The goal of this two-part research is to explore part of Tôei’s early TV production, mostly between 1964 and 1968. It will be centered around what is paradoxically one of the studio’s lesser-known series, Shônen Ninja Kaze no Fujimaru or, translated into English, Young Ninja Fujimaru of the Wind. This first part will analyze the show itself, which was probably one of the boldest of its time in terms of direction and narration. The second part will follow Fujimaru’s staff after the show, especially two of Tôei’s greatest animators: Keiichirô Kimura and Hayao Miyazaki.

Before going into the details of Fujimaru’s production, it’s important to get some context on the beginnings of TV animation in Japan. It is generally told that Tôei entered TV anime rather slowly: Mushi Pro’s Astro Boy started airing on January, 1st, 1963 and had been announced months earlier, while Tôei’s first TV show, Wolf Boy Ken, only started airing in November of the same year. The other main rival was studio TCJ, which had until then produced animated commercials for TV: they launched no less than 3 shows (Sennin Buraku, Tetsujin 28-Go and Eightman) between September and November 1963. Considering that Tôei was the largest animation studio of the country, it is true that they seem to have taken their time; but they quickly started producing their own TV series, including  Fujimaru, which was their second one.

There are many possible reasons for Tôei’s comparatively slow entry into the TV market. The first was that this wasn’t necessarily something they needed to target: they were already making animated movies, while the TV division of the studio had started broadcasting live-action series as early as 1959. As a company, Tôei didn’t really need to get into TV animation. When looking at Tôei Animation proper, it must be noted that, for the first time in its history, the studio had released two movies in a single year in 1963: The Little Prince and the Eight-Headed Dragon in March, and Wan Wan Chûshingura in December. In other words, the staff was already busy. Very quickly, however, TV shows proved to be an asset for the studio: the initial intent seems to have been using them as where new artists, the ones recruited in 1962-1963, would be trained before being sent to the more prestigious movies.

This is why series like Fujimaru are interesting: they were basically training grounds, where you can see the artists’ skills develop from episode to episode. But it also illustrates that Tôei didn’t enter the TV market easily: they weren’t the one who pitched the project, but were instead approached by the company Fujiwara Pharmaceutics, who wanted to produce an animated show about ninja. Daisuke Shirakawa, a Tôei director relatively close to Osamu Tezuka and one of the few to really believe in the potential of the TV format, eagerly led the project. He suggested that the show base itself off the work of mangaka Sanpei Shirato – his Kaze no Ishimaru was renamed Kaze no Fujimaru as a nod to Fujiwara. This was a bold choice, to say the least: Tôei had been suffering from labour disputes for a few years, which only intensified as a union was created in 1961, and Shirato was an openly Marxist artist whose work would become a reference for leftist movements in the following years. This political side would however be a perfect fit for the other main creative on Fujimaru, who was heavily involved in the studio’s union: animation director and character designer Daikichirô Kusube.

Not used to the way things worked in the animation industry, Shirato was not satisfied with the commercialization of his work and the way Kusube adapted his drawings and characters. Starting from episode 29, the mangaka’s name disappeared from the credits just as Kusube was replaced on animation direction by the more experienced Akira Daikuhara. Since Tôei TV shows had no series director, the change in animation direction – and in producer and writers – caused a major change in aesthetics. Whatever the causes of this, the consequence was that Fujimaru should not be considered as a single series, but rather as two distinct works with completely different approaches; accordingly, they will be examined separately here.

Daikichirô Kusube’s Fujimaru

The one thing that made Fujimaru’s initial 28 episodes so original was the fact that they followed a single, continuous narrative. This was rather bold, as even most live-action TV shows of the time would have been episodic. This relative fidelity to Shirato’s manga, which also entailed lots of violence directly on the screen (multiple times, a character is almost incinerated to death, while killing happens on a regular basis) may imply that the show was aimed at an older audience than young kids, as Astro Boy and Tetsujin 28 were. Since it was aired in the early evening, it was not, like TCJ’s Sennin Buraku, a late-night show clearly aimed for adults; but it might have been for teenagers and highschoolers rather than the younger demographic of elementary to primary school kids.

Even as a continuous narrative, Fujimaru is particularly hard to parse. As could be expected from a Shirato work, it follows various members of ninja clans as they either follow or try to free themselves from the structures that bind them. The result is an incredibly large cast of secondary characters, some of whom appear in an episode and are killed off in the next. While Fujimaru remains very simple in terms of storytelling devices, it remains narratively rather complex. As a result, the show contained a lot of flashbacks, and among the first 28 episodes, no less than 4 (#7, #14, #24 and #28) are recaps – probably the first in anime history. Not only does this illustrate how hard to follow writers believed the show to be, it also indicates how early on poor planning and various difficulties plagued the show, hardships that came to a head towards the end of its run.

The last element that set early Fujimaru apart in terms of structure was that every episode ended on a segment called “1001 nights of ninja”, consisting of interviews of Masaaki Itsumi, a real-life martial artist and 34th head of the Togakure-ryû school of ninjutsu. There, Itsumi would explain ninja techniques and history. It indicates how, especially for Tôei, TV anime was probably not conceived as a specific medium or format, but was just one of the many ways they could fill up TV slots. In that perspective, mixing animation and live-action, an entertainment program and interviews of a real martial artist, were perfectly complementary. But director Daisuke Shirakawa also later stated that he asked to insert those segments to shorten the length of the episodes – 20 minutes was the absolute limit animators could handle.

In terms of staff, Fujimaru was clearly a successor to Wan Wan Chûshingura, especially in its early part. Except for the movie’s animation director Akira Daikuhara during the first half, most people involved in Fujimaru had been on Wan Wan: this was the case for the unofficial series director Daisuke Shirakawa (director of Wan Wan) and of the main screenwriter of this part of the show, Takashi Iijima. In terms of animation, the two most important figures were Daikichirô Kusube, one of the central animators on Wan Wan, and Yôichi Kotabe, who debuted as key animator on the movie. The less experienced animators who made their debut on the show, such as Keiichirô Kimura, Yukiyoshi Hane and Kenzô Koizumi had entered Tôei together and had rather begun animating on The Little Prince and the Eight-Headed Dragon: for them and many others, Fujimaru was the end of their training period.

It’s important to keep in mind that idea of Fujimaru, and of most of Tôei’s early TV shows, that of a training ground. 1963 was the last time the studio made a mass series of recruits for in-house, full-time, salaried animators – after that, they’d start using part-time and outsourced work. But even then, not all animators were under contract: Keiichirô Kimura, and possibly most of the in-betweeners, was paid piece-rate and found it hard to make a living. The amount of new artists that had to be put on the job explains the relatively high number of credited animators throughout Fujimaru’s run. While many episodes still only credited two key animators, most others had 4 or 5 of them, with as many if not more in-betweeners. On the other hand, there were many irregularities, with multiple episodes not crediting any animators.

Although I don’t know much about their relationship, it is clear that Daikusube and Kotabe were close at this point, both as individuals and as artists. The decision they took was to take the show towards realism and a kind of detailed animation that would be on par with the standard of feature films. The best example of that is perhaps the opening, which they animated together. Almost entirely on 1s and 2s and including some bank or pre-animated sequences from the show (that were probably made for the pilot, if there was one), it is very fast-paced, especially for the time, and contains some impressive bits of action, all extremely fluid and dynamic.

The beginning of Fujimaru‘s opening; the first ten seconds are by Kotabe, the ten others by Kusube

This philosophy, and the ambition to bring “full” animation to television was held throughout all of Kusube’s part of the show. It was of course untenable on a constant basis, but the best moments of the early episodes do not compare that unfavorably to Tôei’s movies of the same period, and are far above the standard of contemporary TV animation. Although it’s hard to tell with any satisfying level of certainty or detail, this was probably possible thanks to heavy involvement from Kusube and Kotabe: the latter was credited as key animator on 16 of the 24 non-recap episodes. Until episode 8, Kotabe was credited with only one other animator, Tetsuta Ikano, who seems to have started in Tôei in 1962 under Daikuhara as an in-betweener on Arabian Nights: Sinbdad no Bôken

For the rest of the show, Kotabe’s team started expanding, often including 4 other animators. What is strange is that Kotabe was credited quite distinctly from them: still under “key animation”, but clearly top-billed, with a space between his name and that of the other animators (his name is underlined in red on the image on the left). This may indicate that Kotabe’s work was distinct from that of the other animators – either doing some kind of layout/first key animation work, or some assistance to Kusube on animation direction.

Much later on, starting from episode 49, Kotabe would start being credited as animation director alongside Akira Daikuhara, lending some credibility to these suppositions. Benjamin Ettinger and especially Keiichirô Kimura do mention that Kotabe was indeed assistant animation director, but they don’t really say if that was the case as early as during Kusube’s part of the show.

In any case, although Kotabe’s involvement remained central to the show during its entire run, it is in episode 1 that he showed the full extent of his ability. Directed by the experienced Daisuke Shirakawa, it features some excellent storyboards which, by their attention to space and compositions, reveal that things were moving very fast in Tôei’s TV shows – Isao Takahata was working in the exact same direction on another series, Wolf Boy Ken. In terms of animation, the most impressive display was the middle part of the episode, most probably animated by Kotabe, as Fujimaru escapes a castle he just infiltrated and has to fight off the local ninja guards.

In sequences such as the one above, things just move well; but that’s not all there is to it. The striking elements are perhaps not to be found in the framerate or the fluidity, but rather in the attention to detail, small elements of the drawings added to enhance the motion that were rarely present in Tôei’s movies, even in Kotabe’s own output. These are, for example, the amount of attention put in the follow-through motion of Fujimaru’s hair: this simple device creates a surprising amount of dynamism. There is also the extremely frequent use of afterimages, either drawn by the animator himself or added with a brush, or of light flares as Fujimaru swings his sword to avoid projectiles.

In conditions such as those of TV animation, the most obvious line of thought is that the animation is generally going to be less detailed than in movies. That is certainly true, if we think in terms of overall fluidity, or the amount of subtlety that can be put into the motion itself – that is, if we think along the lines of a full/limited animation kind of divide. However, animation such as this illustrates that there can be another kind of detail: purely ornamental elements that do not strictly speaking fall under the categories of exaggerated or cartoony, but all contribute to making the actual motion, and not just the individual still frame, more powerful and dynamic.

All of these techniques may have been introduced or encouraged – on Fujimaru at least – by Daikichirô Kusube, although in his own animation, he went even farther in the direction of detailed/realist animation. But before analyzing Kusube’s work in detail, it’s important to introduce him as an artist. Kusube’s work as animator is little known, largely because he was overshadowed by his friend and colleague Yasuo Otsuka and because little of his sequences on Tôei movies have been identified. However, Kusube was a major artist in Tôei’s first decade of existence: he began key animating on The White Serpent in 1958 (but was uncredited because the animators were ordered in terms of seniority and not according to their actual work) and was present on all their movies until 1963. His role as animation director on Fujimaru was certainly a promotion and a recognition of the value of his work, but also perhaps a way for Tôei’s management to take him away from the more prestigious movies: he was very politically active, especially in the studio’s union. After the failure of Hols, Isao Takahata shared a similar fate, being relegated to direct episodes on TV shows instead of following up on another movie.

The political context is central to understand Kusube, but also why Fujimaru was such an important series. As the show’s schedule started becoming tighter, Kusube was forced to begin key animating on top of doing animation direction. In the end, he delivered 5 solo key-animated episodes – on most of which he also did the in-betweens. However, Kusube was against having to do this, which is probably partly why he gave up animation direction after episode 28, and asked to be paid overtime for his key animation. At first, Tôei’s management agreed, but once the show was over and Kusube asked for his pay, the overtime ended up amounting to more than what Tôei’s director was paid in a single month. This caused an uproar within the studio and, as Kusube refused to back down, he was forced to quit Tôei in September 1965. 

 (I could never confirm whether Kusube actually got paid what he was due in the end – Benjamin Ettinger reports he did, and used that to create A Pro, but his account of Kusube’s departure seems to omit some other details so it may just be speculation on his part. Keiichirô Kimura does mention that Kusube was paid considerably higher than the much poorer regular animators. In any case, the fact that Kusube was offered animation direction on a future feature film may have been a way to ensure him higher revenue without actually paying him what he was due for Fujimaru). 

To add insult to injury, Tôei used its position within the association of Japanese film producers to ask other animation studios not to take Kusube in. This completely backfired, as it made the news of Kusube’s departure known throughout the entire country. Mere hours after the information had come out, Osamu Tezuka personally phoned Kusube and offered him to join Mushi Productions. Kusube refused, and immediately received a similar offer from Yutaka Fujioka from Tokyo Movie, a newcomer in the TV anime game that was struggling and in need of experienced animators. Kusube refused to work directly for Tokyo Movie, but instead created his own studio A Productions in December 1965, which would be Tokyo Movie’s main subcontractor. From A Pro, Kusube would take in the majority of artists that left Tôei in the late 60s, establishing what would be one of the most important animation studios of the 70s. However, what a quick look at A Pro’s first works reveals is that very little of Fujimaru’s staff followed Kusube when he left. Those he took along with him, most notably Osamu Kobayashi and Tsutomu Shibayama, possibly shared his misgivings but had never worked with him before. In other words, there was no mass exile in the wake of Kusube’s departure; it was closer to a slow but steady flow of people leaving between 1965 and 1972.

Perhaps because of his unwillingness to do the work, or simply because of the incredibly tight schedule he was under, most of Kusube’s solo episodes are subpar. There is, however, one major exception to this: his first solo work, episode 23.

There, Kusube’s talent shines incredibly bright, and his animation is, even more than Kotabe’s, easily on par with what he had done on movies. The movement is almost constant, and the fight scenes are easily among the best in the entire show. The mastery especially comes through two elements. The first is that, whereas Kotabe seems to have initially prioritized fluidity above all else, Kusube modulated his animation, seamlessly switching from 2s to 3s and 4s. Framerate modulation, generally considered to have been introduced by Yasuo Otsuka on Hols, was starting to develop in TV animation, but was probably anything but common at the time. Using it allowed Kusube to add more complexity and variety to his animation, another example of the detail work that TV animation allowed to blossom. 

The other element is the attention to expression: the character’s expressions change from a frame to another, something that may sound basic but was not often found outside of dialogue scenes, which themselves had often the most simple acting. The faces in Kusube’s animation are varied and always changing, making the fights entertaining not just for the cool movement and choreography, but also as encounters between real human beings. In that regard, my favorite element in the scene shown above is when one of the duelists spits on the handle of his sword: that is superfluous movement, not really needed in the fight itself. But it lends an air of believability to the character and his struggle, while showing how dedicated the animator was to his craft.

As mentioned earlier, Kusube’s part of Fujimaru was largely dominated by his and Kotabe’s “realistic” style, which left little room for other animators to express themselves. Although many future major artists made their debut on this early part (Keiichirô Kimura, Yukiyoshi Hane, Kenzô Koizumi…), they would have to wait until the later episodes for their styles to blossom. In that sense, Akira Daikuhara’s arrival on the show and the worsening conditions were perhaps something of an opportunity for many artists, as it allowed them to improvise and freely let out their sensibilities.

Akira Daikuhara’s Fujimaru

Although Daikuhara was Kusube’s friend and teacher, by the time of Fujimaru, their artistic approaches had become close to opposites. Daikuhara was anything but controlling – quite the contrary, in fact. His approach as animation director largely consisted in supporting the animators and helping them develop their own individual style rather than correct them and impose his own personality. On the aesthetic side, if Daikuhara’s initial approach of character animation laid the groundwork of Kusube’s own “realism”, by 1963-1964, he had completely adopted the way of “cartoony exaggeration” which he had himself pioneered in Wan Wan Chûshingura. Daikuhara’s work was spontaneous and liberated, whereas Kusube’s was methodically thought-out. 

As entertaining and creative as Daikuhara’s approach to animation was, we must make no mistake: in Tôei’s context, this was an artistically and politically conservative move. For Kusube, as would be the case for Takahata on Hols, realism was an essentially political issue: to give animation the ability to cover new, more complex ground, to reach adult audiences and to create actual political awareness.

It is therefore no surprise if the change in animation director not only entailed a complete change in animation philosophy, but also in tone. All pretense of realism or narrative continuity were laid aside for a series of much shorter arcs, each handled by a single writer, which had looser narrative cohesion and comical episodes. Daikuhara’s designs had almost nothing to do with Shirato’s anymore, and sometimes just look completely ridiculous, like the antagonists of the show’s second arc, Western magicians stranded in Japan who speak in a faux-American accent.

On the other hand, these changes favored many of the animators who hadn’t been able to make themselves seen on the first part of Fujimaru. Perhaps one of the less-known ones, but also among the most interesting, was animator Takao Kôzai and his team. Kôzai entered Tôei in 1960, and worked as an in-betweener on all the studio’s movies; he most probably did his debut as key animator on Fujimaru. From there, he quickly rose in the ranks, acting as animation director on some episodes of Tôei’s 1965 show Space Patrol Hopper. By then, however, Kôzai had already left Tôei to create studio Hatena Productions along with Fusahiro Nagaki, Kenzô Koizumi and Hiroshi Azuma. One of the first Tôei offshoots, Hatena was dissolved in 1969 and its staff created many other new studios. The one Kôzai joined was Junio, created in June 1970, in which he would remain until the end of his career.

Created by Tôei artists, Hatena was one of the first companies Tôei relied on for its animation outsourcing. Judging from the credits, there were a dozen Hatena episodes, divided in mostly two teams, both with Kôzai as one of their members. One team was Kôzai and Hiroshi Azuma, while the other was with Fusahiro Nagaki, credited under his pseudo Bonjin Nagaki. The Kôzai-Azuma duo was behind one of the best episodes of Kusube’s part of the show, episode 16. The end of the A part, possibly animated by Kôzai, featured some impressive fights and an animation style completely different from Kusube and Kotabe’s: the motions were slow and slightly more exaggerated, while the drawings featured some very visible smearing and brushwork. This came with a mastery of layouts that not all animators in the show shared by that point, visible in incredibly original POV shots or complex choreographies.

As fitting as this animation was for tense fight scenes, it seems that Kôzai and Azuma felt more at ease in Daikuhara’s lighter part of the series. The other best instance of their talent is therefore episode 44. It contains many crazy scenes as various characters ingest a drug that makes them act madly and unexpectedly. The animation is as deformed and exaggerated as possible, with smears, wild expressions and enlarged body parts. This kind of animation, clearly Daikuhara’s favorite, blossomed in the hands of creative artists; it would only keep developing within Tôei and its diaspora, with its greatest representative ultimately being ex-Tôei animator Daizô Takeuchi.

The influence of Daikuhara’s sensibilities, and perhaps of the Hatena Pro artists as well, is visible even in the episodes that Kotabe and his realism-oriented group animated. A good example of this is episode 39, featuring among its staff not only Kotabe, but also Yukiyoshi Hane and Keiichirô Kimura. The movement lost much of its fluidity in favor of exaggerated expressions, snappier timings and a frequent use of brushes. The distinction between serious, realistic fight scenes and moments of comic relief was quickly getting blurry as the animation got increasingly cartoony.

The moment Yôichi Kotabe stopped being credited under key animation but started doing animation direction along Daikuhara, that is from episode 49, was another important step in Fujimaru’s production. It allowed the younger animators, who had debuted under Kotabe, to move away from his overbearing influence.

The first example of such artists is a duo that would stay closely-knit for the next few years in Tôei: Keiichirô Kimura and Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi. It is on episode 51, the first episode where Kimura animated without Kotabe as key animator, that the iconic “Kimura style” made its first notable appearance in a chase scene at the end of the A part. A few brief shots, one of which is bank, exhibited more geometric shapes and a distinctly rough linework on outlines and shading. It is also possible to follow Kimura’s evolution through his adoption of a nervous kind of motion and pose-to-pose animation: the movement of Fujimaru’s horse at the end of this sequence is modulated, and although everything goes quite fast, it’s easy to read each individual pose. Along with the stark perspectives and complex layouts, it is the overall switches between fluid movements and brief but intense stops that create a unique sense of rhythm where each pose is essential and original. Later in the same episode, Kimura would make the first use of his iconic light flares.

However, Kimura and Wakabayashi were soon eclipsed by a younger animator who debuted on episode 49 and then joined their team on episode 55: that was Hayao Miyazaki. Like many artists in Fujimaru, Miyazaki had entered Tôei in 1963, and did his first in-betweens on Wan Wan Chûshingura. As such, his early style was heavily influenced by Daikuhara and Kusube. Although still minor in the seniority-based hierarchy in Tôei, he made himself noticed by becoming the chairman of the animators’ union in 1964. Miyazaki clearly followed in Kusube’s footsteps, not only in his political militancy, but also in his disrespect for creative hierarchies: he took part in the scriptwriting of Gulliver’s Space Travels, his last work before Fujimaru and on which he was simply supposed to be an in-betweener.

Considering his work on Fujimaru, Miyazaki possibly did something similar, probably disregarding storyboards or demanding that his cuts avoid any correction. In any case, when he made his key animation debut on episode 49, he was a determined artist with a personality of his own: the final fight of the episode is probably one of the strongest debuts in all of anime history.

On the immediate level, this long sequence is impressive just for how hallucinatory and nightmarish it is. Fujimaru had never reached such a level of intensity before. The combination of effects, morphing and fighting animation was extremely ambitious, even for Tôei, and was completely mastered thanks to a flawless use of modulation and an unique drawing style. The afterimages and smears on Fujimaru’s sword and the creatures’ movements are perfectly used, but what is perhaps the greatest indicator of  Miyazaki’s talent was the expressions he gave characters. The last seconds, as Fujimaru is being strangled by a gorilla, are by far the clearest instance of it: Fujimaru’s face becomes horribly deformed, while the spiky shapes of the gorilla’s teeth and eyes irradiate pure hostility.

In his following episodes (55, 57, 62 and 65), Miyazaki would only go further down that path of intensity. On #55, he elevated what was just an anecdotic fight scene with completely off-model drawings and incredibly complex layouts. On #65, he paid a sort of homage to an earlier Tôei movie, Saiyûki, by animating a fight between Fujimaru and a giant scorpion in which Fujimaru moved like he had never moved before. Miyazaki’s presence was felt even outside of his own sequences: in the late episodes of the show, an increasing number of animators started to depict Fujimaru as an awesome fighter, drawing him with the same ferocious expressions. Under Miyazaki and his imitators’ pen, fights were really life-or-death situations; they were so intense that even Fujimaru seemed to be imbued with a sort of malice towards his adversaries. In all that, Miyazaki’s animation clearly prefigured one of his greatest scenes ever, the opening sequence of Hols, Prince of the Sun.

Fujimaru’s aftermath was somewhat complicated. As mentioned, the show is what led to Daikichirô Kusube’s departure, which would trigger a series of exiles in the next years, just as Tôei was increasingly starting to rely on part-time workers or freelancers to lower costs and avoid having to use an unionized workforce. Moreover, Fujimaru’s production itself had probably reached untenable stages by the end of its run: Miyazaki himself and his team were probably sent in to avoid the show’s collapse, and Kotabe’s promotion as co-animation director was probably just a way to avoid a disaster. It was in this context that, for the first time, Tôei resorted to a practice that they would keep coming back to in the 60s: recycling. In concrete terms, that meant inserting sequences from movies into episodes of TV shows, in a sort of considerable expansion of bank footage. Besides the fact that such inserts, often handled poorly, are a questionable artistic practice, this is an indication of Tôei’s shifting priorities: the feature films were not high-quality, prestigious productions aiming for artistic and commercial success in Japan and overseas, but simply resources that could be used to lower costs on TV series. In other words, the TV market and its profitability had become the priority for the studio.

Similarly, Fujimaru’s staff was scattered across Tôei’s productions. Two distinct groups quickly formed: Yôichi Kotabe and Hayao Miyazaki, the most troublesome as it were, were dispatched on Isao Takahata’s movie Hols, Prince of the Sun. Another group, led by Keiichirô Kimura, would take up Kusube’s mantle: their goal would be to train new animators on the studio’s TV series and B movies. After Fujimaru ended, Kimura therefore rose to become character designer and animation director on two manga adaptations that would come out in early 1966: the TV series Rainbow Sentai Robin and a Cyborg 009 feature film.

Bibliography

Clements, Jonathan. 2013. Anime: A History. Palgrave McMillan.

Ettinger, Benjamin. 2005. “Ken the Wolf Boy”. Anipages. http://web.archive.org/web/20180813183745/http://www.pelleas.net/aniTOP/index.php/ken_the_wolf_boy

Ettinger, Benjamin. 2007. “A Production/Shin-Ei Animation”. Anipages. http://web.archive.org/web/20190215214515/http://www.pelleas.net/aniTOP/index.php/a_production

Kimura, Keiichirô. 2001. “Animator Interview – Keiichirô Kimura”. WEB Animestyle. http://www.style.fm/as/01_talk/kimura01.shtml [Japanese]

Pruvost-Delaspre, Marie. 2021. Aux Sources de l’Animation Japonaise: Le Studio Tôei Dôga (1956-1972) [The Origins of Japanese Animation: Tôei Dôga Studio (1956-1972)]. Presses Universitaires de Rennes. [French]

Shirakawa, Daisuke. 2004. “Tôei Animation Research – Daisuke Shirakawa Interview – Part 6: Fujimaru and the beginning of the Tôei Manga Festival”. WEB Animestyle. http://www.style.fm/log/02_topics/top041213.html [Japanese]

Shônen Ninja Kaze no Fujimaru credits transcription

Planning: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬) (#01-28), Atsumu Saitô (?) (斉藤侑) (#29-65), Akira Onosawa (?) (小野沢寛) (#29-65)

Original work: Sanpei Shirato (白土三平) (#01-28)

Original plan: Nashio Kitani (木谷梨男) (#29-51), Shûji Fukuhara (?) (福原宗司) (#52-65)

Music: Kôichi Hattori (服部公一)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

Production: Tôei Animation (東映動画)

#01

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

Art: no credits

#02

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章)

Art: no credits

#03

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

Art: no credits

#04

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: no credits

In-between: no credits

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#05

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Katsushi Yamaoka (?) (山岡勝司), Kôji Arata (?) (新田康二)

In-betweens: Tamae Matsusumi (松隈玉江), Yoshiji Yamakata (?) (山形良治), Atsumasa Fujisawa (?) (藤沢重信), Michihiko Kichida (?) (吉田迪彦)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#06

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章 credited as 佐々木明)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#07 (Recap episode)

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#08

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#09

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#10

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Shigeru Horikawa (?) (堀川豊), Michihiko Yoshida (吉田迪彦)

In-betweens: Tamae Matsusumi (松隈玉江), Yôko Katô (加藤洋子), Machiko Dazai (太宰真知子), Katsushi Yamaoka (?) (山岡勝司)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#11

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Ayami Kuzuhara (?) (藤原文三), Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#12

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Kazuo Katsuhisa (?) (勝又和雄)

In-betweens: Akira Rinshô (林正央), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Asada Kiyotaka (浅田清隆), Akira Shôi (正井融), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#13

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章),Akichin Shûko (?) ( 明珍秀子), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Rinshô (林正央 miscredited as 林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#14 (Recap episode)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太)

In-betweens: Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#15

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一) ; Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融),Akichin Shûko (?) ( 明珍秀子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史 credited as 林正央)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#16

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏)

In-betweens: Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Ayami Kuzuhara (?) (藤原文三), Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#17

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction:  Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Shigeru Horikawa (?) (堀川豊), Sumiko Naganuma (長沼寿美子, credited as 長沼すみ子)

In-betweens: Miyo Yamada (山田みよ), Yoshiji Yamakata (?) (山形良治), Akira Kôda (?) (広田全), Shunji Minagawa (?) (宮川尚久)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#18

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsuta (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎 misspelled as 木村圭一郎), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Kazuo Katsuhisa (?) (勝又和雄), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#19

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎 misspelled as 木村圭一郎), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Akichin Shûko (?) ( 明珍秀子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#20

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博), Takao Kôzai (香西隆男) 

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Ayami Kuzuhara (?) (藤原文三), 

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#21

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation:  Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児)

In-betweens: Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Kazuo Katsuhisa (?) (勝又和雄), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫 misspelled as 椛島義雄), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#22

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融),Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#23

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

In-betweens: no credits

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#24(Recap episode)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太),  Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Kazuo Katsuhisa (?) (勝又和雄), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#25

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太),  Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Akichin Shûko (?) ( 明珍秀子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#26

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一);  Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Kazuo Katsuhisa (?) (勝又和雄), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学)

Art: no credit

#27

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博), Takao Kôzai (香西隆男) 

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Ayami Kuzuhara (?) (藤原文三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#28 (recap episode)

Screenplay: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融),Akichin Shûko (?) ( 明珍秀子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#29

Screenplay: Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎)

In-betweens:  Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Aki Rinshô (?) (林正史), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#30

Screenplay: Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Yoshio Shinno (?) (真野好央)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘)

In-betweens:  Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), 玉沢武, Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#31

Screenplay: Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏)

In-betweens: Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三), Shizusô Enro (?) (塩路靜三), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#32

Screenplay: Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Michihiko Yoshida (?) (吉田迪彦), Machiko Inusai (?) (犬宰真智子)

In-betweens:  Kimiko Matsutô (?) (松藤玉子), Kiyoko Katô (?) (加藤洋子), Yoshiji Yamakata (?) (山形良治), Akira Kôda (?) (広田全)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#33

Screenplay: Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博), Takao Kôzai (香西隆男) 

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Shizusô Enro (?) (塩路靜三), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#34

Screenplay: Takahashi Iijima (飯島敬), Kô Shihara (?) (志原弘)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: No credit

In-betweens: No credit

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#35

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎)

In-betweens: Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学), Noriko Kobayashi (?) (小林範子), Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#36

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博), Takao Kôzai (香西隆男) 

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏),, Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#37

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Michihiko Yoshida (吉田迪彦 credited as 吉田みちこ), Sumiko Naganuma (長沼寿美子, credited as 長沼すみ子)

In-betweens: Tamae Matsusumi (松隈玉江), Akira Kôda (?) (広田全), Yoshiji Yamakata (?) (山形良治),  Hideyuki Minesaka (みねさかひでゆき)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#38

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Akira Shôi (正井融), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則)

In-betweens: Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学), Noriko Kobayashi (?) (小林範子), Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#39

Screenplay: Kôzô Uchida (?) (内田弘三)

Episode Direction: Yoshio Shinno (?) (真野好央)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児),  Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#40

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Nagaki Bonjin (永樹凡人, pseudo of Fusahiro Nagaki, 永木總博), Takao Kôzai (香西隆男) 

In-betweens: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#41

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#42

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘)

In-betweens:  Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Rinshô (林正央 miscredited as 林正史), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#43

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦) Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則)

In-betweens: Manabu Ohashi (大橋学), Noriko Kobayashi (?) (小林範子), Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也 credited as 田中憲昭), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#44

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏)

In-betweens: Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Shizusô Enro (?) (塩路靜三), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#45

Screenplay: Keijirô Kono (?) (古野次郎)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘)

In-betweens: Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫),  Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#46

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦) Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘),

In-betweens:  Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Rinshô (林正央 miscredited as 林正史), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#47

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Man Okamura (?) (竹田満)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

In-betweens: Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫),  Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Akira Rinshô (林正央 miscredited as 林正史)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#48

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Yoshio Shinno (?) (真野好央)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Manabu Ohashi (大橋学), Noriko Kobayashi (?) (小林範子), Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也 credited as 田中憲昭), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#49

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇), Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子),  Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫), Yoshinobu Usuda (薄田嘉信), Takashi Abe (阿部隆), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-betweens: Kyoko Kasai (?) (笠井晴子), Akiko Hanada (?) (花田玲子), Akiko Saitô (?) (斎藤瑛子),Kinsaburô Muramatsu (?) (村松錦三郎), Noriko Ishii (?) (石井基子), Kouji Kurahashi (倉橋孝治)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#50

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏)

In-betweens: Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎), Shizusô Enro (?) (塩路靜三), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Kenzô Koizumi (小泉謙三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#51

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Akira Shôi (?) (正井融),  Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則) Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦)

In-betweens: Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子) Akira Hotta (堀田誠)  

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#52

Screenplay: Kei Tanî (?) (谷井敬)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児),  Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇),  Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫)

In-betweens: Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武),  Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明) Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#53

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏)

In-betweens: Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Tsukasa Honzan (?) (本山郎次), Tetsuo Imazawa (今沢哲男), Ayami Eriane (?) (藤原文三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#54

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#55

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Man Okamura (?) (竹田満)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Yoshinobu Usuda (薄田嘉信), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Takashi Abe (阿部隆), Tetsuhiro Wakabayashi (若林哲弘), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介) , Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-betweens: Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也 credited as 田中憲章), Kyoko Kasai (?) (笠井晴子),  Isao Sakurai (桜井勇), Akiko Hanada  (?) (花田玲子), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也), Akiko Saitô (?) (斎藤瑛子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#56

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Shigenori Saitô (?) (佐藤秀則), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Noriko Ishii (?) (石井基子), Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Kinsaburô Muramatsu (?) (村松錦三郎), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章)  Kouji Kurahashi (倉橋孝治), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#57

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Yoshio Shinno (?) (真野好央)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation:  Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子), Yoshinobu Usuda (薄田嘉信), Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇), Takashi Abe (阿部隆), Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-betweens: Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Ichihirô Yamada (?) (山田一広), Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#58

Screenplay: Minoru Tanaka (?) (田中実)

Episode Direction: Daisuke Shirakawa (白川大作)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫)

In-betweens: Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武) Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也 credited as 田中憲章), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也) Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#59

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Takeshi Tamiya (田宮武)

Animation Direction: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

Key Animation: Daikichirô Kusube (楠部大吉郎)

In-betweens: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫), Akira Rinshô (林正央), Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子), Akira Hotta (堀田誠), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#60

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Takao Kôzai (香西隆男), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎)

In-betweens: Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Tsukasa Honzan (?) (本山郎次), Tetsuo Imazawa (今沢哲男), Ayami Eriane (?) (藤原文三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#61

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Kimio Yabuki (矢吹公郎)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太), Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子), Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明), Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫)

In-betweens: Kyoko Kasai (?) (笠井晴子), Akiko Hanada (?) (花田玲子), Akiko Saitô (?) (斎藤瑛子),Kinsaburô Muramatsu (?) (村松錦三郎), Noriko Ishii (?) (石井基子), Kouji Kurahashi (倉橋孝治)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#62

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Shizuo Murayama (村山鎮雄)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Yoshinobu Usuda (薄田嘉信), Keiichirô Kimura (木村圭市郎), Takashi Abe (阿部隆), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿), Keisuke Morishita (森下圭介)

In-betweens: Kiyotaka Asada (浅田清隆), Akira Rinshô (林正央 miscredited as 林正史), Akira Sasaki (佐々木章) , Akichin Shûko (?) (明珍秀子), Yoshio Kabashima (椛島義夫)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#63

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Tomoharu Katsumata (勝間田具治)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章)

Key Animation: Hiroshi Azuma (我妻宏), Hachirô Imota (?) (宇田八郎)

In-betweens:  Tsukasa Honzan (?) (本山郎次), Tetsuo Imazawa (今沢哲男), Kazuko Ueki (?) (植木幸子), Ayami Eriane (?) (藤原文三)

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

#64

Screenplay:Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Man Okamura (?) (竹田満)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation: Akira Shôi (?) (正井融), Tetsuta Ikano (?) (生野徹太),Tatsuji Kino (木野達児), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiaki Kobayashi (小林敏明)

In-betweens: Akira Hotta (堀田誠),  Tadashi Shirakawa (白川忠志), Isamu Tamazawa (?) (玉沢武), Okano Shômei (?) (岡野正明), Fumio Hairamura (?) (平村文男), Manabu Ohashi (大橋学)

#65

Screenplay: Seiji Katô (?) (加藤精二)

Episode Direction: Tokue Shirane (白根徳重)

Animation Direction: Akira Daikuhara (大工原章), Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Key Animation:  Ayako Nakatani (?) (中谷恭子), Yoshinobu Usuda (薄田嘉信), Noboru Sekiai (堰合昇), Takashi Abe (阿部隆), Takao Kurosawa (?) (黒沢隆夫), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-betweens: Ken’ya Tanaka (?) (田中憲也 credited as 田中憲昭), Kyoko Kasai (?) (笠井晴子), Isao Sakurai (桜井勇), Akiko Hanada (?) (花田玲子), Ariya Eimoto (?) (榎本有也), Akiko Saitô (?) (斎藤瑛子) 

Art: Mataji Urata (浦田又治)

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