From the Apennines to the Andes

This article was co-written with Toadette

This article is part of the World Masterpiece Production History series. Read the previous entry here

From the Apennines to the Andes (also called 3000 Leagues in Search of Mother, or simply Marco for short) has a paradoxical reception and reputation. In Japan, it is just as well considered as Isao Takahata’s other two entries in the World Masterpiece Theater, with entire generations of animators (chief among them Takashi Nakamura, Satoru Utsunomiya and Toshiyuki Inoue) counting it as one of their sacred texts. In English-language discourse, while Marco is extremely well-considered among those who have seen it, their number is small, and Marco is far from being as popular as Heidi or Anne. This article will not aim to provide reasons for this state of affairs, but to give a thorough presentation and commentary on Marco and its importance in Isao Takahata’s career, the World Masterpiece Theater, and anime history at large.

While Marco is the second of three series Takahata directed for the WMT, it is the last featuring in its entirety the trio of Takahata on direction, Yôichi Kotabe on character designs and animation direction, and Hayao Miyazaki on layouts. While none of the participants knew that Marco would be their last work together while it was in production, it is important to keep it in mind: this is the conclusion of a relationship that had gone on for a bit less than a decade, since the Tôei Animation days, and its aftermath would prove to be full of decisive developments for the three artists’ careers and lives. According to Kotabe, the cause of the split was growing disagreements between the three men during Marco’s production. Both Kotabe and Miyazaki were probably getting tired of Takahata’s constant control, something which would be confirmed in Miyazaki and Takahata’s relationship in later years.

While it is tempting to draw parallels with the trio’s previous work Heidi, the increasing strain within their relationship also invites us to consider things more carefully. There is certainly continuity between the two works in terms of presentation, staff and philosophy, but Marco’s context was a different one: for the team, Heidi had been a first (and successful) attempt. Two years later, they had more experience, ability, and determination.

The difference in context goes beyond this and includes multiple additional elements. The first is the existence of 1975’s WMT entry, A Dog of Flanders, which, despite its faults, provided a perfect bridge between Takahata’s two shows. Indeed, Marco’s adaptation philosophy was much closer to Flanders’ than to Heidi’s. The work that was chosen to be adapted was not a full-length novel (as had been the case with Heidi), but a short story, like Flanders: it was a chapter of the Italian novel Cuore, by Edmondo De Amicis, “From the Apennines to the Andes”. As a result, even more so than in Flanders, most of Marco’s episodes were original stories not featured in the original work. The other similarity, as we will see below, was a thematic one, as Marco lays aside some of Heidi’s preoccupations about childhood and nature to take on, with infinitely more virtuosity, many ideas introduced in Flanders, like poverty and the fate of children in a harsh world that leaves no room for them.

The second is that three of Heidi’s central staff members were not present in Marco, as all of Heidi’s writing team seems to have left following the transition from Zuiyo Video to Nippon Animation. Perhaps to avoid Flanders’ lack of unity, but also to further the centralizing drive central to Takahata’s creative organization, Marco was entirely written by a single scriptwriter, Kazuo Fukazawa. Fukazawa played a large part in the adaptation work and it was notably him, an ex-puppeteer, who introduced the Peppino troupe. Takahata and Fukazawa knew each other well, since the latter had been the scriptwriter for Hols: Prince of the Sun, on which he also played a major role. This is central, as Marco is in many ways more in Hols’ continuity than Heidi’s.

A second change came in the art direction, which was handled not by Heidi’s art director Masahiro Ioka but by Takamura Mukuo. One of the most important background artists in anime history, Mukuo had created his own Mukuo Studio in 1968, and made his debut as art director on 1972’s Astroganger. In later years, his most famous works would include the Galaxy Express 999 movies, The Blade of Kamui, and the Sailor Moon series. He had already worked as a background artist on Heidi, and would also collaborate with Takahata on Gauche the Cellist, which was in production at the same time as Marco; it’s uncertain whether it was after working on Marco that Mukuo was recruited for Gauche or the other way around, but in any case, both productions are closely related in that regard. As will be explained below, Mukuo’s work was instrumental not only in realizing Takahata’s artistic objectives, but also in considerably furthering them, opening new, unprecedented directions in both background art and animation.

Finally, there was a change in the music composer: the great composer Takeo Watanabe, who had been on Heidi and Flanders and would stay on for Rascal and Perrine in 1977 and 1978, was not on Marco. He was replaced, for unknown reasons, by the much more minor artist (at least in anime) Kôichi Sakata, with whom Takahata had never worked before. This choice ended up being an original but good one: unlike other WMT entries, Marco’s soundtrack is more orchestral, fitting the larger dimension of the show. Perhaps following Takahata’s indications and Watanabe’s precedent on Heidi, it did take heavy inspiration from local, mostly Argentinian, folk music.

Besides these changes, Marco was made following the same processes as Heidi. Takahata, Kotabe and Miyazaki, this time accompanied by Mukuo, made a scouting trip to Genoa and Argentina. Genoa, especially, seems to have had a great impact on at least two of the four: Mukuo was struck by the light and atmosphere of Italy, which he would try to reproduce in his backgrounds, while Miyazaki would express a fascination for the country in many of his later works. We don’t have a precise chronology for the trip, but it must have taken place after Takahata’s episode on Flanders, that is, #15, aired in April 1975. Considering the geographical range, the trip must have been longer than Heidi’s, which took 10 days. From this, a tentative chronology of Marco’s production may look like this: a pilot film was produced in the first months of 1975, followed by the scouting trip during the spring. The show’s production proper must have started shortly after that, perhaps around July or August.

Just like Heidi, and possibly every WMT entry, Marco was an extremely difficult production. We have no horror stories from it like the ones from 1974’s show – largely because our main source of information, Yôko Gomi, did not work on the series until its final months – but the conditions were probably similar, if not worse: the indicators from Marco’s credits and animation are even more worrying. First, there is the case of the pre-animated episodes. Unlike previous entries and especially Heidi, the animators on those were not elite animators and freelancers that the director or animation director managed to recruit outside of Nippon Animation – with the exception of Yasuo Otsuka on episode 1, but his contribution was minor at best. Episodes 1 and 2 were key-animated by 2 animators each, whereas episodes 3 to 5 were done by the Oh Pro and Nippon teams at the same time. This doesn’t necessarily indicate that the production was already in a dire state (although there are already notable spells of reused animation), but instead that these episodes were made while Flanders was still in production: the animators were already busy on something else and couldn’t deliver their usual output. This was already discussed in previous posts, but it is now possible to see how contradictory the WMT’s production model was: on the one hand, it consisted of starting productions as early as possible, which would in theory help them begin on a healthy basis. But on the other hand, yearly shows closely following each other, and the small workforce Nippon had at its disposal, meant that animators went from a series to another, or both at the same time, without any opportunity to rest. It’s impossible to imagine that this exhaustion didn’t build over the years, ultimately leading to the definitive departures of some of the franchise’s top artists.

Besides these early examples, Marco’s episodes were mostly animated by one team at a time, that is, 3 to 5 animators. But it is unsure whether this organization was really best for the artists. Indeed, from an animation and production standpoint, Marco can be divided in three clear stages. Episodes 1 to 16 display an incredible level of quality and consistency, perhaps even higher than Heidi’s. Then, sometime after episode 16 (in April or May), the production seems to have simply collapsed: episode 19 is more-or-less a recap episode, the only example of this technique in Takahata’s entire TV career. For him to resort to this must have meant that the animation simply couldn’t be delivered on time. From there until around episode 26, as the growing use of bank and recycled animation illustrates, the show clearly has difficulty picking itself up; Kotabe himself was probably not able to keep up either, as from episode 22 until the end, he was assisted on animation direction by his wife Reiko Okuyama who had just left Tôei. Finally, and probably at the price of many hardships, the last 20 episodes witness an impressive rise in animation quality, sometimes just as masterful as the early part of the show.

Another notable aspect of Marco’s production is that it featured an unusual amount of staff movement in comparison to previous WMT series. First, the Oh Pro team was far from consistent. The show did mark the return of the team’s two most talented animators, Kôichi Murata and Toshitsugu Saida, who had probably been busy on Gauche throughout 1975. However, whereas Murata was present throughout the entire show, Saida only animated on episode 1, before disappearing and reappearing on episode 19 – he was probably recalled by Takahata as a means to save the production. On the other hand, two Oh Pro animators left Marco mid-production: these were Kôshin Yonekawa (last credited on episode 25) and Tsukasa Tannai (last credited on episode 31). Probably unable to keep up, they were transferred to Oh Pro’s Tokyo Movie team to work on Ganso Tensai Bakabon and Hana no Kakarichô. While Tannai especially would collaborate with Takahata in later years, Marco would be both men’s last contribution to the World Masterpiece Theater.

Similar remarks can be applied to the Nippon-affiliated team of freelancers. On the positive side, the show marked the definitive promotion of Masako Shinohara to key animation – although she also did in-between check on some episodes. An ex-Tôei animator, Shinohara had been in-between checker all throughout Heidi and largely contributed as key animator to Flanders; Marco confirmed her position within Nippon and alongside Takahata and Miyazaki, whom she would later follow to Studio Ghibli. Another addition to the staff was Hideo Kawachi, a student of Yasuo Otsuka from A Production who had worked with Takahata on Lupin III and Panda Kopanda. Just like Saida, he was probably called in to help, as he had not been a regular on Nippon productions and only started being credited from episode 20; he had already left A Pro after the end of Ganba no Bouken in any case.

However, there was one major loss: this was one of the most talented artists to have worked on the WMT series, Toshiyasu Okada. As mentioned in previous posts, Okada suffered from intense back pains which made his working in animation difficult, and probably caused his early departure from Heidi. However, he remained steadfast as one of Flanders’ regular animation directors, and was a regular animator on Marco. But the show probably proved to be too much for him, as he stopped being credited after episode 34. With the exception of episode 7 of Future Boy Conan and Grave of the Fireflies, Okada never worked with Takahata or Miyazaki again; instead, after a period in which he mostly worked on Nippon’s two Seton Animal Chronicles series and Group TAC’s unsung omnibus shows Manga Ijin Monogatari and Manga Kodomo Bunko, he would become a founding member of Studio Pierrot, where he was notably character designer and animation director on such WMT-like series as The Wonderful Adventures of Nils and The Mysterious Cities of Gold in the early 80’s. 

However difficult Marco’s production was, it undoubtedly stands as one of Takahata’s masterpieces and one of the greatest entries in the WMT. Perhaps the most epic in scale, it nevertheless never loses its incredible sense of focus, just like its titular protagonist: while the many delays Marco encounters before meeting his mother might seem as artificial as some of Flanders’ episodes and their useless melodrama, they are here put to the service of a strongly cohesive and continuous narrative, in which each encounter Marco makes is significant for the whole of the story.

Heavily influenced by Italian neorealist cinema, especially in its early part, Marco represents a decisive step in Takahata’s formal research on realism and space in animation. It is here that Mukuo’s work as art director was central. In Hols and Heidi, Takahata had produced the illusion of three-dimensional space by one of two means: compositing, through camera or background movement, and layouts, through the position or motion of the characters in space. Without setting aside these techniques, Marco opened another possibility: that depth would be the core focus of the background art. In other words, the backgrounds would give the illusion of depth without even the need for characters to move through or into them. The early Genoa episodes are the clearest illustration of this, as simple stills or pans over the scenery are enough to create the impression of a believable space. While this might seem obvious now, no anime, especially no TV anime, had ever gone very far in trying to recreate real sceneries, especially urban ones: in 1976, backgrounds were most often either a neutral backdrop, or highly ornamental pieces supporting a distinctively expressionist art direction, as the collaboration between director Osamu Dezaki and art director Shichirô Kobayashi exemplifies. (It should be noted, however, that the distinction between Mukuo and Kobayashi is not that deep when looking at their overall careers: Kobayashi’s student Toshiharu Mizutani would create similarly in-depth backgrounds on Shin Dokonjô Gaeru in the early 80s, while on Sailor Moon, Mukuo adopted Kobayashi-like stylization.)

Besides the artistic breakthrough this represented, this new approach to background art probably entailed a new division of labor within the top levels of Marco’s direction. Indeed, unlike in Heidi, Miyazaki was no longer credited under “location setting”, but instead “scene composition – layout”. As the layout artist, Miyazaki was in direct collaboration with Mukuo and he may have played a part in the show’s complex spatial compositions. But he was no longer in charge of all that regarded spatial continuity: the balance of power had probably tilted in favor of Mukuo and his ability to reproduce real-life landscapes.

On the narrative and thematic level, it was the collaboration between Takahata and scriptwriter Kazuo Fukazawa that created the show’s unique flavor. As mentioned earlier, Marco has more in common with Hols than Heidi; that is no doubt due to Fukazawa’s presence. Indeed, while Marco further explores character psychology and the way children live and feel, it has a decidedly sociological approach, which entails two things: recreating the material and social conditions of people’s lives, and exploring the complex dynamics at play within given communities. In these regards, the difference with Heidi is first in degree: because Marco’s scale is much bigger, the number of communities that are explored is much higher. For example, the narrative crux of Heidi was to witness how Heidi’s arrival within given groups (the Alps population, Clara’s family) changed the perception of their members and made them happier or better people. Marco reproduces this dynamic, but complexifies it: Marco makes much more encounters, and it is now rarely him who changes people. It is rather the opposite, as the various groups Marco encounters are both the occasion to explore interpersonal dynamics (as is notably the case with the Peppino family) and to change Marco himself. Put in simpler terms, Marco is not just a psychological study, but also borrows heavily from coming-of-age narratives.

But there is also a difference in nature between Heidi and Marco. While Heidi did have ideological intentions, it was not a political work per se. Such is not the case of Marco which, just like Hols, sometimes carries an overtly political agenda and uses precise imagery to that effect. While Takahata probably didn’t have the idea of adapting Cuore all by himself, the choice of that novel is already significant: thanks to its sociological focus and representation of poverty in late-19th century Italy, De Amicis’ novel was a favorite of the Italian Communist Party, thereby becoming a classic of Soviet children’s literature and being imported to Asia via Communist China. In other words, it is very possible that Takahata, through his knowledge of European literature and participation in leftist groups in the 60s, already knew of the novel and its reputation. In any case, he doubled down on the sociological aspect, taking care to represent urban life and poverty, but also many other different kinds of lifestyles, from Argentinian sheperds and peasants to the impoverished and discriminated native populations in Argentinian slums.

On top of all these portrayals, which will be analyzed below in specific episodes, there are two decisive scenes establishing the political aspect of Marco. The first is at the end of episode 10, when a doctor coming to visit the Peppino family admonishes the father for pushing his daughter to overwork, and starts a speech on poverty and worker’s exploitation in general. While such words sound strange in a production like Marco, where workers were pushed to overwork and exhaustion, such paradoxes are not rare in Takahata’s career and do not take anything away from this scene and how bold it must have been to include it in a children’s program. The other scene takes place much later, in episode 40: in Argentina, Marco is offered money by the local Italian community, whose members start collectively singing Bella Ciao. Including this Italian folk song gave a sense of authenticity to the portrayal of Italian immigrants, but it’s also important to note that, in 60s and 70s Japan, its Japanese translation was closely associated with the Japanese Communist Party and various leftist movements.

While Marco may not have the privilege of being “the first” in many aspects as Heidi was, it perfectly illustrates that everything that had been introduced successfully in Heidi could be pushed even further. It is a unique work in Takahata’s entire career, perhaps one of his boldest in the narrative and formal aspects, and probably marks the end of a first period in his artistic evolution, one initiated with Hols: his following works would not feature the same sense of scale, focusing much more on individual psychologies. Marco’s aftermath can therefore be found in the work of Hayao Miyazaki, who would make his debut as series director 2 years later on Future Boy Conan and keep exploring the epic scale first introduced in Marco in a post-apocalyptic setting. Marco’s enduring influence over Conan and Miyazaki’s entire personal world is visible in the characters of Lana (inspired by Fiolina, both in design and her relationship with the male protagonist) and Dyce (clearly taking cues from Peppino). As for Yôichi Kotabe, while he would work on the next year’s WMT show Rascal the Racoon and keep irregularly collaborating with Takahata (on the Chie the Brat TV show) and Miyazaki (on Nausicaä), he progressively distanced himself from Nippon and TV animation at large, ultimately joining video games company Nintendo in 1985. His work as character designer would, however, remain iconic, inspiring many later designers on the WMT (first among them Yoshifumi Kondô for Anne of Green Gables) and forming the basis of Miyazaki’s own design style.

Episode highlights

Episode 1

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Key Animation: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次)

In-Betweens: Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一), Toshiaki Ishiguro (石黒敏昭), Kazuo Ushikoshi (牛越和夫 misspelled as 牛越一夫), Kenji Tokura (戸倉健二)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

In terms of the series structure, Marco’s first episode plays a singular role, as it is immediately followed by a one-year timeskip. This is already indicative of the series’s unique approach, as this episode is not the beginning of the story in traditional terms: character and setting introductions are only really made in episode 2. This is therefore a much more fundamental kind of beginning, the unforgettable and traumatic event that triggers everything that will follow, even if we as viewers don’t fully understand it yet: the departure of Marco’s mother to Argentina. Unlike Heidi and Anne, Marco doesn’t begin by introducing the titular character to a new place and family: it is the very opposite that happens.

The episode relies on a simple yet effective narrative device: the contrast between Marco’s point of view, happy at this exceptional day when he and his family are going out of town, and the other things that are shown to the viewer, indicating that a tragic event is about to take place. In other words, we do not completely share Marco’s perspective, but are not in on everything either, in anticipation for the reveal of the mother’s departure in the middle of the B part.

Animation-wise, this episode is no doubt one of the highlights not only of the entire show, but also of 70s animation as a whole, easily rivaling, if not surpassing, Heidi’s opening episodes. It was handled by only two animators, Masako Shinohara on all or most of the A part, and Toshitsugu Saida on most of the B part. This was perhaps Shinohara’s first opportunity to show that she could be counted among Nippon’s greatest animators. But even then, she was completely overshadowed by Saida, who delivered some of his all-time greatest work – assisted by the legendary Yasuo Otsuka, who did some minor work at the beginning of the B part, when Marco and his mother mount a horse. The horseriding scene that follows, animated by Saida, is already impressive, showcasing a complete mastery of anatomy and perspectives that prefigures the equally great animal animation of Gauche the Cellist.

But even this is nothing compared to the moment that made Saida enter the pantheon of the greatest character animators of all time: the final scene of the episode, when Marco’s mother leaves and her son chases after her. Saida’s testimony (and perhaps a bit of legend) has it that he himself was crying as he animated it. Marco’s desperate run and cries are echoed by the mother’s, resulting in not only a superb performance, but also a deeply emotional moment. One of the clearest illustrations of Takahata and Saida’s talent is their ability to make this scene, just after we’ve been introduced to these characters, as strong and believable as it is.

Episodes 2-3

#02

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-Betweens: Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一), Toshiaki Ishiguro (石黒敏昭), Toshiko Nakagawa (中川とし子), Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#03

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

These two episodes make up the introduction to the show proper, making us acquainted with Marco, his family, and the town of Genoa, the protagonists of the first third of the story. Both feature Marco running around town accomplishing various tasks, and are the best examples of how powerful the collaboration between Takahata on storyboards, Miyazaki on layouts, and Mukuo on art direction could be. Each shot is incredibly complex, with each element conveying a sense of depth and distance. Not only does this make Genoa feel believable and alive, but it also makes us share Marco’s own perspective as a little child in a big, dense town. However, it should be noted that it is not oppressive: despite how poor and crowded the city is shown to be, Marco represents one of the only instances in Takahata’s own filmography where the city is not associated with negative values – as had been the case, for example, in Heidi.

If this is the case, it is because this is where Marco belongs: the city is not something to be left behind, but the ultimate objective of the journey, where he will have to bring his mother back. This is also why these early episodes are so important, and the show takes its time to illustrate the various lives Genoa’s inhabitants live.

In this, the superb animation perfectly fulfills its goal. Episode 2, exceptionally animated by Kotabe and Miyazaki, is considered by some to be one of the best episodes in the series, and certainly represents some of the two men’s best TV works. Proof of how comfortable Kotabe felt at this early stage, he went as far as to animate some sequences entirely on 2s, an extremely rare performance in TV anime in the mid-70s. While not quite as excellent, episode 3 is also very well-handled, especially the interactions between Marco and his brother Tonio, and the various movements of the monkey Amedeo. Just as Joseph had been on Heidi, Amedeo was probably added at the demands of the producers in order to sell merchandise; but his presence was much appreciated by the animators, who had more freedom in animating him than in the detailed and realistic movement of other characters.

Episode 7

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Kazuo Ushikoshi (牛越和夫), Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

In terms of staff, this episode contains some of the first indications that the production was not going well. The most worrying element is the number of in-between checkers. It had already risen to two on episode 5, with Noboru Takano being assisted by Jun’ichi Yokoyama. From episode 6 onwards, they were joined by Nobuo Tomizawa. There is little information available on Yokoyama’s 70s work, but both Takano and Tomizawa had been animators on Heidi; it was there that Tomizawa did his first animation work, and he quickly rose from there to become in-between checker on Marco and then key animator on Conan and Anne. The quick rise in the number of in-between checkers could however be interpreted in a more positive way: perhaps that, after Heidi, Takahata realized that just one person in the position was not enough, and tried to have more people on it as soon as possible; but then the reason why there weren’t three from the start remains to be explained.

Another subject of speculation is the reason for the presence of two non-Oh Pro animators, Kazuo Ushikoshi and Noboru Akiyama. Marco’s animation credits are hard to read precisely, because they split the animators over two screens. Sometimes, it just means a difference in studio (between Oh Pro and Nippon-associated animators), but here, it could imply that Ushikoshi and Akiyama were in-betweeners; this may be the case for Ushikoshi, whose only recorded credits before and after his work on WMT series was as in-betweener. In any case, while there is little information available about them, they seem to have been previously associated with Mushi Pro in the late 60s-early 70s, making their presence on Marco even more intriguing.

As for the episode itself, its narrative and thematic importance is highlighted by the fact that it was the last one to be personally storyboarded by Takahata – probably with the assistance of Miyazaki, following Takahata’s usual storyboarding process. The first half, during which Marco and his family have to move to another, smaller place, is one of the first obvious eruptions of the theme of poverty. It was already present early on, but it is really here that it seems to hit both Marco and the spectator with full force. But it is the B part which is the most important, as it contains the first meeting proper between Marco and Fiolina. The setting, up on the roofs by sunset, is very poetic, but what is striking is the ability to immediately convey Fiolina’s personality: shy and afraid of expressing herself, but full of hidden talent and care for others.

Episode 11

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

As mentioned above, the early part of the show is full of great animation, and this episode is one of the best examples of it. This is perhaps due to the important amount of screentime given to the Peppino family, and especially to Peppino himself: perhaps like Amedeo, and as had been the case for Ms. Rottenmeier in Heidi, his acting was often exaggerated and allowed the animators to have some more fun with their work. But the real highlight is Fiolina’s arc, which reaches a first climax in the B part of this episode, as Marco convinces her to perform alone with the puppets she created herself. The dialogue scene between the two children is beautiful, but in terms of animation, Fiolina’s performance is especially notable. Puppet performances play a major role in the show. However, while they tend to be a strength at first due to the quality of their animation, they quickly become repetitive as they are the sequences of animation that are the most repeated. This is not the case for Fiolina’s act, which is largely (though not entirely) unique to this episode.

Episode 20

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖); Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

This episode bears witness to some more of the intense staff changes that Marco knew. It is notably the first to credit Hideo Kawachi, who would integrate into the team of Nippon-affiliated freelancers. But it also features some more change at the level of in-between check. The initial in-between checker, Noboru Takano, had decided to leave the animation industry for a time and was replaced by Masako Shinohara on episode 19, while Jun’ichi Yokoyama disappeared after episode 12. Shinohara stopped checking in-betweens after episode 44 to return to key animation, while Nobuo Tomizawa hung on until the end: from episode 22 onwards, he would alternate with Hidemi Maeda as Shinohara’s co-checker, Tomizawa checking the Nippon-affiliated episodes and Maeda checking the Oh Pro episodes, before the two of them jointly replaced Shinohara from episode 45 onwards.

Besides these changes, this episode is one of the strongest of the sea voyage arc, as the immigrant ship that Marco has boarded goes through a storm and the people on board start to panic. Yet another proof that this show is ultimately about communities, the psychological and social dynamics of the group of immigrants are depicted with care. In terms of animation, the storm is also the occasion for great effects and liquid animation, at least parts of which are almost certainly the work of Toshiyasu Okada.

Episode 21

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇), Kenji Tokura (戸倉健二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

No doubt one of the most intense in Marco, this episode is also perhaps one of the best in Takahata’s entire career. It is the moment when the protagonist finally breaks down, letting out all of his fears and uncertainties, as he runs all around the ship looking for help, heralded by the amazing nightmare scene that opens the episode. Takahata had always used fantastic imagery to translate the psychological state of his characters; but here it seems to reach a new level, with mostly still shots full of a scary, mysterious atmosphere. Mukuo’s creative role was once again probably instrumental: not only do the backgrounds play a central part in this scene, they also do something Takahata himself seldom did – they’re very open about their references, namely Surrealist painting and Italian painter Giorgio de Chirico. This chilling sequence finds a relative resolution in another dream scene later in the episode, this time much simpler visually, but accompanied by a more reassuring insert song.

Episode 26

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

This episode seems to be the one where the animation, after going through hard times, finally starts to pick itself up. Indeed, although this is a fairly static episode with much time just spent on the carriage, the animal animation throughout is exemplar – Toshiyasu Okada’s top-billing here was undoubtedly well-deserved – as is the sequence at the beginning of the B part where Marco and Fiolina run and play together, the first moment in the show where we see them acting like real children and not having to shoulder heavy responsibilities and worries.

Visually and thematically, this episode is also important, as it makes us enter the Argentinian countryside, and is the occasion to see sceneries and wildlife. In that regard, the most important and spectacular part of the episode is the extremely long pan over the pampa at the beginning – an unusually long shot, giving the viewer time to take in the view and how radically different this environment is from the narrow streets of Genoa.

Episodes 27-28

#27

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#28 

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

This couple of episodes is very special in the show, and probably in Takahata’s entire early career, as it represents an incredibly metafictional moment: the Peppino troupe decides to adapt Marco’s story into a puppet play. This is the occasion for multiple great insights, both psychological and narrative, as the involvement of Marco as a character in a play ramps up the tensions inside the Peppino family. 

The first great moment is the beginning of episode 27, as Fiolina evokes her idea of creating a new play for the troupe. Marco is soon caught up in the idea and starts playing up his own idea of a story – without ever listening to Fiolina and her wishes, and bringing her to tears. The conflict between Marco’s action-packed ideas and Fiolina’s project for a slower, more introspective story is easy to interpret as a reflexion from Takahata and Fukazawa on their own ambitions as storytellers, and the way Fiolina gives in to Marco in the end is perhaps indicative of another problem tackled in these episodes: the place of women and their relegation to supporting or background figures.This conflict comes to a head in the second half of episode 28, where Fiolina and Concetta, the two daughters of the Peppino family, protest against their father’s choice to kill off Marco’s mother in the play. The strongest words come from one of the women in the audience: “Women’s suffering never ends, giving them a happy ending is the least you can do” – another line that sounds ironic coming from those who initially wanted to have Hilda, the tragic and unique female character, die at the end of Hols. Besides the political edge, this dialogue plays very well with the viewer’s expectations: given the meta tone of these two episodes, it’s hard to know if these lines foreshadow the ultimate death of Marco’s mother or not. The ultimate refusal of such an ending speaks volumes about Takahata’s ambition in regards to the WMT as a whole: Marco is not a tearjerker, and does not take the way of easy melodrama, as its predecessor, A Dog of Flanders, had done.

Episode 40

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

Marco reaches a new stage in his journey, once again failing to find his mother. Despair is slowly starting to win him over, as illustrated by the hallucinatory sequence at the end of the A part. This sequence, once again making full use of Mukuo’s background art, is also quite unique in that it features photography effects that Takahata almost never used. Indeed, while Takahata always sought to represent dreams, the imagination, and more generally the psyche by evocative means, he almost always did it through the animation proper rather than through the compositing or photography. It isn’t the case here, as the images are distorted not only by the drawings, but also by some special lens effect. This distortion and the many blurs only make this scene more disturbing and show how far in visual experimentation Takahata was willing to go.

Narratively, this episode is also interesting, not least because it contains the aforementioned “Bella Ciao” scene. Besides the political meaning highlighted above, this scene is also central in context, as this is the episode where Marco, an immigrant, is for the first time confronted with racism from the local Argentinian population. In contrast, then, the help from the local Italian community is a beacon of hope and the last help Marco can rely on.

Episode 42

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

This episode marks a step in the representation of poverty, and especially inequalities. In yet another town, Marco is once again left on his own to search for his mother and is unable to find her. As he wanders in the town at night, he initially crosses the wealthier parts of the city and witnesses the grand lifestyle of the Argentinian bourgeoisie. Just after that, we witness the other side when Marco meets the young Pablo, a member of poor native communities living in slums. The first meeting with Pablo is when the young man goes through the trash of a restaurant – a direct representation of his harsh lifestyle, but also of the incredible food waste that comes with the refinement of the upper classes. 

The first meeting between Marco and Pablo is also a violent one, as Marco repeatedly refuses, this time and earlier in the episode, to be taken for a beggar; a fight breaks out between the two children, an unusually violent moment that is, in terms of animation, one of the highlights of this part of the show. Scenes like this, with more expressive motion, must have been appreciated by the animators despite their difficulty, as they allowed them to stretch their muscles a bit more; they are also a pleasure for the viewer, the occasion to witness that the artists’ talent is equal in both subdued character acting and this kind of action. Generally, this episode’s animation is very good and consistent, perfectly conveying the day-to-day hardships of life in the slums.

Episode 45

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

Another unforgettable moment of violence is the one in this episode. But it has a very different context, as it is now Pablo being beaten for having smuggled himself onto a train, acting as a decoy for Marco. The episode as a whole, where the two children and then Marco alone try to hide from the guards, maintains a very good level of tension – and when this tension is finally released, the violence is sudden and extreme. This episode is decidedly bent on showing how ruthless authority – or, more simply, the world of the adults – can be, as Marco himself is left abandoned in the wilderness after being discovered.

Episode 49

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

After 48 episodes, this is the point where Marco’s suffering seems to reach its most intense point and tragic conclusion: alone and hurt, he is carried only by his sheer willpower and longing for his mother, coming close to death as he collapses in the snow – a scene very reminiscent of Hilda’s “death” in Hols. This is also the point where the show puts in direct parallel the fates of Marco and his mother, linking them through editing, almost as though they have some kind of psychic link. Indeed, it is when Marco is closest to death that we see his mother again, for the first time since the opening episode. Sick, almost close to death herself, Anna seems to feel the suffering of her son and calls out to him. As painful as this scene is, it is also profoundly reassuring for the viewer: it assures us that Anna is, this time, at the end of the road, and that she is still alive. For the first time, we move out of Marco’s perspective, as if Takahata himself needed to reassure us. In this sense, it is probably the most intense part of the show, perhaps even more than the reunion between mother and son at the end of episode 50.

Credits transcription

Director: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Original Work: Edmondo de Amicis

Executive Producer: Kôichi Motohashi (本橋浩一)

Screenwriter: Kazuo Fukazawa (深沢一夫)

Music: Kôichi Sakata (坂田晃一)

Screen Composition + Layout: Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

Character Design + Animation Director: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一)

Art Director: Takamura Mukuo (椋尾篁)

Photography Director: Keishichi Kuroki (黒木敬七)

Recording Director: Yasuo Urakami (浦上靖夫)

Producers: Junzô Nakajima (中島順三),  Takaji Matsudo (松土隆二)

Planning: Nippon Animation

—————————————————————————————————–

Assistant Animation Director (#22-52): Reiko Okuyama (奥山玲子)

Cel Painting: Studio Robin

Finish Inspector: Michiyo Yasuda (保田道世)

Sound Effects by Ishida Sound Production: Akihiko Matsuda (松田昭彦) (credited from #7 onwards)

Sound Adjustment: Tsugio Nakatogawa (中戸川次男)

Production: Nippon Animation, Fuji TV

#01

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Key Animation: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次)

In-Betweens: Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一), Toshiaki Ishiguro (石黒敏昭), Kazuo Ushikoshi (牛越和夫 misspelled as 牛越一夫), Kenji Tokura (戸倉健二)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#02

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Key Animation: Yôichi Kotabe (小田部羊一), Hayao Miyazaki (宮崎駿)

In-Betweens: Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一), Toshiaki Ishiguro (石黒敏昭), Toshiko Nakagawa (中川とし子), Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#03

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#04

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#05

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#06

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#07

Storyboard: Isao Takahata (高畑勲)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Kazuo Ushikoshi (牛越和夫), Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#08

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#09

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#10

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖); Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Toshiko Nakagawa (中川とし子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#11

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#12

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Jun’ichi Yokoyama (横山淳一)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#13

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Fumio Kôda (古宇田文男)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#14

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#15

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#16

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#17

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#18

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一); Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Noboru Takano (高野登), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#19

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Kazuo Ushikoshi (牛越和夫), Toshiko Nakagawa (中川とし子)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#20

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖); Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#21

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二); Noboru Akiyama (穐山昇), Kenji Tokura (戸倉健二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#22

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#23

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#24

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#25

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Kôshin Yonekawa (米川功真), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善)

#26

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#27

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#28 

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#29

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#30

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#31

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Tsukasa Tannai (丹内司), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#32

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#33

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#34

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Toshiyasu Okada (岡田敏靖), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#35

Storyboard: Yoshio Kuroda (黒田昌郎)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#36

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#37

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#38

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#39

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#40

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#41

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#42

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#43

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidemi Maeda (前田英美)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#44

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Shun’ichi Sakai (坂井俊一), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫)

In-Between Check: Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#45

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#46

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#47

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Kazuyoshi Yokota (横田和善), Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#48

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#49

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#50

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

#51

Storyboard: Seiji Okuda (奥田誠治)

Animation: Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Studio Aqua: Yoshikuni Nishi (西芳邦), Shigeo Nishihara (西原繁男), Ken’ichi Ishibashi (石橋健一)

Assistant Director: Ken’ichi Baba (馬場健一 misspelled as 馬場健三)

#52

Storyboard: Yoshiyuki Tomino (富野喜幸)

Animation: Yukiyoshi Hane (羽根章悦), Hideo Kawachi (河内日出夫), Masako Shinohara (篠原征子), Hidenori Oshima (大島秀範); Oh Pro, feat. Kôichi Murata (村田耕一), Toshitsugu Saida (才田俊次), Jôji Manabe (真鍋譲二), Ken’ichi Okamoto (岡本健一)

In-Between Check: Hidemi Maeda (前田英美), Nobuo Tomizawa (富沢信雄)

Backgrounds by Mukuo Studio: Tadao Kubota (窪田忠雄), Kôyô Itô (伊藤攻洋), Yôko Mukae? (迎陽子), Mariko Miyamoto (宮本マリ子)

Assistant Director: Yasuo Kageyama (蔭山康生)

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